Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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Aim To investigate the relationship between dissonance and effort. In the ‘mild embarrassment’ condition, participants read aloud to a male experimenter a list of sex-related words like ‘virgin’ and ‘prostitute. His task was to turn each peg a quarter turn clockwise, then another quarter turn, and so on. Forced compliance theory is the idea that authority or some other perceived higher-ranking person can force a lower-ranked individual to make statements or perform acts that violate their better judgment.

At the close of the farlsmith the S was asked what he thought the experiment was about and, following this, was asked directly whether or not he was suspicious of anything and, if so, what he was suspicious of.

Forced compliance theory

The larger the pressure used to elicit the [p. The dissonance could, consequently, be reduced by magnifying the importance of this cognition.

As can be readily seen in Table 1, there are only negligible differences among conditions. The Research Council of Norway.

But nevertheless, the possibility exists that the S s n the One Dollar condition may have improvised more. This study consisted of two experiments. The control subjects were asked to go to a room to be interviewed. Since these derivations are stated in detail by FestingerCh.

Students were urged to cooperate in these interviews by being completely and honest. Ashmore and Collins conducted an experiment called “Studies in Forced Compliance: The major results of the experiment are summarized in Table 1 which lists, separately for each of the three experimental conditions, the average rating which the S s gave at the end of each question on the interview.


Three other participants declined the offer and another one, though he gave the girl a positive briefing, he asked for the girl’s number afterwards so he can, according to him, explain to her further what the study is about.

We wish to thank Leonard Hommel, Judson Mills, and Robert Terwilliger for their help in designing and carrying out the experiment. The results, according to the researchers, display the cognitive dissonance phenomenon. It was explained that, since students were required to serve in experiments, the Department of Psychology was conducting a study to evaluate these experiments in order to be able to improve them in the future.

At the end of these two tasks the experimenter then ‘explained’ the background to the experiment to the student. Commitment to Compliance and Commitment to Activity”. The present experiment was designed to test this derivation under controlled, laboratory conditions. In Festinger and Carlsmith’s experiment, 11 of the 71 responses were considered invalid for a couple of reasons. The ratings were of course done in ignorance of which condition each S was in.

For the two highest levels of commitment identified video recordings participants who received low pay exhibited more attitude change. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58 2 It emerged in the field of social psychology.

Cognitive dissonance

Views Read Edit View history. Retrieved Dec 21, from Explorable. In an intriguing experiment, Festinger and Carlsmith asked participants to perform a festnger of dull tasks such as turning pegs in a peg board for an hour. They could only overcome that dissonance by coming to believe that the tasks really were interesting and enjoyable. He did this for one-half hour.

Forced compliance theory – Wikipedia

In this way, he would be decreasing the importance of carosmith dissonant cognition smoking is bad for one’s health. Carlsmith conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. Two studies reported by Janis and King ; clearly showed that, at least under some conditions, the private opinion changes so as to bring it into closer correspondence with the overt behavior the person was forced to perform. Caglsmith article is a part of the guide: He found, rather, that a large reward produced less subsequent opinion change than did a smaller reward.


The subjects were then again interviewed afterwards and were asked to rate four different areas of the experiment. Specifically, subjects were asked to put spools onto and then off the try with the use of only one hand for half an hour, and then for the next half hour, turn square pegs clockwise in quarter turns, and then start all over again once the whole cycle’s been finished for all 48 square pegs.

Could we generalize the results from such experiments? This was rated in the same way as for the content before the remark.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory | Simply Psychology

Festingeg has been a great deal of research into cognitive dissonance, providing some interesting and sometimes unexpected findings. These made them question what the real purpose of the study is. The highest t value for any of these differences is only 0.

One of the questions that Festinger and Carlsmith were aiming to answer is how enjoyable were the tasks for the participants. The prediction [from 3 and 4 above] is that the larger the reward given to the subject, the smaller will be the subsequent opinion change.

The data from 11 of the 71 S s in the experiment had to be discarded for the following reasons:. The study built on previous research that stated when individuals are not granted the freedom to agree or disagree festinged the task, signs of dissonance are not detected. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59 2 Want to stay up to date?

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