Exercise modified (E. Czarny, E. Nojszewska, Mikroekonomia – zbiór zadań). The utility function of Barnaba is given as follows: U(x,y) = 8xy additional workouts in Polish: Czarny, E., E. Nojszewska, , ” Mikroekonomia: zbiór zadań”, PWE. additional workouts in Polish: Laidler, D. additional workouts in Polish: Czarny, E., E. Nojszewska, , ” Mikroekonomia: zbiór zadań”, PWE. additional workouts in Polish: Laidler, D., S. Estrin,

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The price game played by oligopolists forces competitors to reduce costs nojszfwska may eliminate weakest players thus increasing market concentration as well as transparency of the relevant market. The aim of this course is nojsewska acquaint students with microeconomic issues including czanry attention to the activities of the small and medium enterprises and rules of their behavior in the market.

For example, Herbert Hovenkamp states that the application of competition law is necessary if administrative intervention into market processes is economically justified9. Additional information registration calendar, class conductors, localization and schedules of classesmight be available in the USOSweb system:. Similarly, a contribution to the financing of a sectorial association engaged in information exchange, or facilitating such exchange during the meetings of its members, is treated as costs of information collection.

Mikołaj Czajkowski – Literatura

The first stage consists of an evaluation of the character of the relevant market — the search for cartelfacilitating factors. Thus, depending on the physical and chemical properties of the goods, the producer may be selling its products in a particular territory not mikroekomomia a result of an agreement between competitors, but due to the optimization of trade logistics.

Polish entrepreneurs are quite frequently unaware 1 Journal of Laws No 50, itemwith subsequent amendments. Menu edit Modules Micro 1 Micro 2 Micro 3.

Instead, they often constitute a form of market research directed at shaping the individual actions of participating companies, which may be interdependent from the plans of their competitors.

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Fall semester 2011/2012

Cartels may be organised in different ways. Gronowski, Ustawa antymonopolowa — komentarz, Warszawap. In the President of UOKiK published additional guidelines explaining the goals and application procedure of the programme.

The balance of the company with the conditions mikroekonojia perfect competition 7. Mikroeoonomia theory of general and the optimum 5. Conduct of competitors in an oligopoly is explained by the interdependence theory formulated by Augustin Cournot. The interdependence theories of oligopolistic markets were developed further by the game theory.

In their opinion, the market is able to self-adjust its deviations to the normal status of competitive equilibrium. Related publications Share Mikeoekonomia Add to favorites Comments. Whish, Competition Law, p. If these criteria are not fulfilled, the cartel lacks discipline in the application of the fixed prices, which might reduce it to price lists only that are generally in the public domain.

Economic Approach to Counteracting Cartels

The ability to compare the effectiveness of management in different economic structures. It creates transparency of the market and competitors may know their prices without price collusion. Are market processes that indicate collusion not more important than the agreement itself if it was never implemented? Does growing market concentration and resulting transparency increase the significance of the economic approach to the evaluation of market effects of the behaviour of business?

Your final grade is determined on the basis of the sum of the final test score and points for participation in class and short tests gathered during the regular semester of class.

Structural barriers result from technological processes and translate into economic terms of demand for material, personal and financial resources the size of which differs in various sectors thus they are called objective barriers. In a situation when an agreement did not affect the market, because it lacked discipline in observing its terms and sanctions for its breach or due to other conditions unfavourable to the execution of the agreement, then according to the law such a cartel has to be prohibited by the UOKiK but with a possibility of a substantial reduction of the usual fines they should be merely symbolic.


It is characteristic to the legal approach associated with cartels. Summary Prices convergence on a market for goods traded by various producers, concentration of their basic product quotas in a particular territory and relative stability of their market shares — do not always have to indicate the existence of an agreement between the players on that market.

Economic analyses, being fully aware of their statistical and methodological weaknesses, should be applied in anti-cartel proceedings in order to keep the equilibrium between a legalistic and an economic approach to the evaluation of business performance. Economists do not see cartels through the prism of written or oral agreements but evaluate them from the point of view of the market structure and the strategy executed by their alleged members.

Monopolistic competition and oligopoly 9. Parallel action is not prohibited by competition law and the President of UOKiK did not find collusion between the gas stations.

However, approaching the retake test cancels the result obtained from the first approach. The aforementioned competences of the President of UOKiK make it possible to collect evidence confirming or repealing the charges of organizing and running a cartel.

Understanding how the market operates and what factors determine the behavior of consumer and producers. In reality, a conflict between business goals and competition law principles is often apparent.