ASTM EStandard Test Method for Determining Volume 1 95 % Con? dence Interval Multipliers No. of Fields n 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ASTM Standard E, using an image analysis routine with Leica .. of Constructional Steel Research 64(11) doi: / ASTM E Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic Manual Point Count. Front Cover. American Society for Testing and.

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### ASTM International – Standard References for ASTM E – 11

Improving the Volume Fraction Estimate NOTE 1— Table 1 gives the appropriate multiplying factors t for any number of? The values in Table 2 do not correspond to theoretical constraints; but, by using these values, empirical observations have shown that the method is optimized for a given precision.

To avoid bias, questionable points should be counted as one half.

If no sample heterogeneity is indicated that is, the con? This can be achieved by using either a circular grid or a square grid placed at an angle to the microstructural periodicity. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Summary of Test Method 4. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. Originally published as E — Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard.

Current edition approved April 10, The point grid, with four times the number of grid points, decreased? The value of the multiplier, t, can be found in Table 1. A grand average can be calculated by taking the average of the set means in this case. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend.

Thus, the method can be applied to any type of solid material from which adequate two-dimensional sections can be prepared and observed. Work Item s – proposed revisions of this standard. Guidelines are given in 9. Precision and Bias 5 Repeated point count measurements on an individual micrograph is not allowed. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Point counting measurements should be completed on different?

Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. Any number of clearly distinguishable constituents or phases within a microstructure or macrostructure can be counted using the method.

## ASTM E562 – 11

This test method has been described 4 as being superior to other manual methods with regard to effort, bias, and simplicity. In this case, more rigorous statistical signi?

Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at phonefaxs562-11 service astm. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.

Diagrams of two possible grids, one with a circular pattern and one with a square pattern, which are recommended for use, are shown in Fig. If another method of? Table 3 gives a guide to the number of?

A number in parentheses indicates the year of last ast. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

Guidelines are given in asmt.

Published June 10, However, it should be recorded since it may have an effect upon the precision obtained. Last previous edition E — The equations for calculating these values asttm as follows: The average point fraction for n measured?

Do not observe the image while translating to a new? This method is applicable only to bulk opaque planar sections viewed with re?

This test method is based upon the stereological principle that a grid with a number of regularly arrayed points, when systematically placed over an image of a two-dimensional section through the microstructure, can provide, after a representative number of placements on different fields, an unbiased statistical estimation of the volume fraction of an identifiable constituent or phase 1, 2, 3. This additional effort should reduce the con? This time estimate can probably be decreased to 15 min after some experience and familiarity with the point counting procedure and the microstructure analyzed are obtained.

Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard Work Item s – proposed revisions of this standard E562-111 Version s: This xstm is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every?

Thus, the method can be applied to any type of solid material from which adequate twodimensional sections can be prepared and observed. This can be accomplished by moving aetm x and y stage mechanism a? Two common types of grids circular or square array are shown in Fig. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard.

These values e562-1 calculated under the assumption that the features have a random distribution upon the metallographic section. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision e562-111 reapproval. The use of —point grid facilitates easy volume percent calculations.